Avalokiteshvara: delivering us from every danger — “Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Suffering”; Chapter 25 Lotus Sutra

Avalokiteshvara (Guanyin, Chenrezig, Kannon) is immediately synonymous with the word Bodhisattva — He (or She) is the quintessential Bodhisattva — the superhero savior. His fame was first well established by Shakyamuni Buddha in the 25th Chapter of the wondrous Lotus Sutra, where Buddha makes it clear that Guanyin is ready to rescue all sentient beings.

[Chapter 25, in full, translated to English, is below. Also, below, please see the video recitation of the 25th chapter — considered an auspicious practice. It includes “read-along” text.]

Even Avalokiteshvara’s name is virtually the definition of a Bodhisattva — “Perceiver of the World’s Suffering.” He — or She since the ideal Bodhisattva is gender-flexible — is not just the “listener” of all of our suffering; the great Bodhisattva is the original “Savior” — long before Tara arose from his tears to help him in his mission.

Robert Thurman explains why Avalokiteshvara is so popular around the world: “…in a sense, Avalokiteshvara is even more than a buddha. After attaining buddhahood, he voluntarily returned to the way of a bodhisattva in order to lead all beings to buddhahood.” [1]

Among the most iconic forms of the great Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara is the
1000-Armed form, symbolic of the countless rescuing hands of compassion.

Many forms of the Bodhisattva

Avalokiteshvara is so intensely focused on saving everyone from suffering, that he arises simultaneously in many forms — including one with one-thousand arms and multiple heads — and still, the great Bodhisattva hero never rests. Even after Tara was born from the tears of the Lord of Compassion Avalokiteshvara (Chenrezig) — and jumped into action to help — still all the many realms are full of suffering beings.

“The Lotus Sutra describes Avalokiteśvara as a bodhisattva who can take the form of any type of god including Indra or Brahma; any type of Buddha, any type of king or Chakravartin or even any kind of Heavenly Guardian including Vajrapani and Vaisravana as well as any gender male or female, adult or child, human or non-human being, in order to teach the Dharma to sentient beings.” [3]

 

Avalokiteshvara appears in countless forms to rescue beings, dependent on their needs and understandings. Male, female, peaceful, wrathful, motherly, fatherly, angry, 1000-armed. His most wrathful emanation (top left) is Hayagriva with the Horse Head symbolically arising from his flaming hair (Green Horse representing activity.) Black and White Mahakalas are other wrathful protector forms in Tibetan Buddhism (bottom centre). Guanyin (top right) is the wonderful Mother Goddess form. Red symbolizes the Padma (Lotus) family, the family of Amitabha (Amita) Buddha.

 

Does Avalokiteshvara ever tire, throw up his thousand arms, and move on into Nirvana? No — the compassionate Bodhisattva tirelessly rescues us from every fear and danger, if we simply call out his name or remember him. In the Lotus Sutra (Chapter 25), Buddha describes Guanyin’s many manifestations this way:

“Good man, if there are living beings in the land who need someone in the body of a Buddha in order to be saved, Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds immediately manifests himself in a Buddha body and preaches the Law for them. If they need someone in a pratyekabuddha’s body in order to be saved, immediately he manifests a pratyekabuddha’s body and preaches the Law to them. If the need a voice-hearer to be saved, immediately he becomes a voice-hearer and preaches the Law for them. If they need King Brahma to be saved, immediately he becomes King Brahma and preaches the Law for them. If they need the lord Shakra to be saved, immediately he becomes the lord Shakra and preaches the Law for them. If they need the heavenly being Freedom to be saved, immediately he becomes the heavenly being Freedom and preaches the Law for them. If they need a great general of heaven to be saved, immediately he becomes a great general of heaven and preaches the Law for them. If they need Vaishravana to be saved, immediately he becomes Vaishravana and preaches the Law for them. If they need a petty king to be saved, immediately he becomes a petty king and preaches the law for them.”

 

Avalokiteshvara as the wonderful goddess Guanyin.

 

Eternally popular savior hero

It is no wonder Guanyin – Kanon – Avalokiteshvara is so eternally popular. He (She in the case of female manifestations) is like a loving parent, always ready to jump into the fire to save us — literally.

It is fair to say, that, as much as we adore and praise all the Enlightened Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, it is the Avalokiteshvara, the Bodhisattva hero, that truly earns the adoration of millions of beings. Why? Because, the Noble One give up the peace of Buddhahood, staying behind in Samsara to save us from our suffering, without rest, the compassionate tears ever-flowing. They are the consummate selfless embodiments of compassion. Buddha was our example, Dharma is our guide, but it is the Sangha of Bodhisattvas who are our beloved rescuers.

 

Avalokiteshvara, the Bodhisattva who hears the cries of the world sheds a tear of compassion. Tara, the rescuer, arise from one of His tears, to help him on his endless mission to save sentient beings from Samsara and suffering.

 

Guanyin rescues from every danger

In the Lotus Sutra, Chapter 25, the merits of Avalokiteshvara are described in great detail, every possible danger listed, and how the Bodhisattva can save us. It is summarized in verse:

Perceiver of the World’s Sounds, pure sage—
to those in suffering, in danger of death,
He can offer aid and support.
Endowed with all benefits,
He views living beings with compassionate eyes.
The sea of his accumulated blessings is immeasurable;
therefore you should bow your head to him!

 

Avalokiteshvara in the Lotus Sutra.

 

Avalokiteshvara is also a universally popular practice. In the 25th chapter of the Lotus Sutra, Buddha made it clear that the merit of honoring Avalokiteshvara far surpasses any other practice (see full text below) — (i.e. offering to Avalokiteshvara only once equals the merit of offering to all other Enlightened Beings together: see full quote in sutra text.):

“Suppose also that there is a person who accepts and upholds the name of Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds and even just once offers him obeisance and alms. The good fortune pained by these two persons would be exactly equal and without difference. For a hundred, a thousand, ten thousand, a million kalpas it would never be exhausted or run out. Inexhaustible Intent, if one accepts and upholds the name of Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds, he will gain the benefit of merit and virtue that is as immeasurable and boundless as this!”

 

Guanyin Bodhisattva — Kuan Yin or Avalokiteshvara or Chenrezig — is synonymous with Metta (loving-kindness) and Karuna (compassion.) The Bodhisattva is also our savior from fears.

How to invoke Avalokiteshvara’s aid

Thich Nhat Hanh explains how to awaken the energy of Avaolokiteshvara:

“Calling the name of Avalokiteshvara is one of the ways to awaken the energy of compassion in your heart.”

In the Lotus Sutra, Shakyamuni Buddha describes how to invoke the aid of the Compassionate Bodhisattva:

‘Hail to the Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds!’ And because they call his name, they are at once able to gain deliverance.

It’s literally that simple. With hands folded respectfully in front of you, praise his name or chant his mantra, or think of Avalokiteshvara. Or, recite Chapter 25 of the Lotus Sutra. Or, the Great Compassion Mantra of Avalokiteshvara. [For a feature, including videos, featuring the Great Compassion Mantra, see>>]

 

Om Mani Padme Hum, the great six-syllable mantra of Avalokiteshvara.

 

Praises

The various ways to praise His/Her name are:

Sanskrit

Namo Avalokiteshvara

Various forms of Chinese (slight variants)

Namo Gwan Yin Pu Sa

Namo Kuanyin Pu Sa

Namo Guan Yim

Namo Kuan Yim

Namo Kuan Yin

Other variants (Namo in all cases here is Sanskrit for simplicity)

Namo Chenrezig  (Chenrezik Tibetan སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས)

Namo Gwan-eum (Korean: 관세음)

Namo Kanzeon (観世音)  or Namo Kannon (観音)  (Japanese)

Namo Kuan Im (Thai กวนอิม)

Namo Quán Thế Âm (Vietnamese)

Namo to the Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds! (English)

 

Guanyin.

 

Mantras

Om Mani Padme Hum   (Universal in Sanskrit)

[For a video chant of Om Mani Padme Hum see>>]

On aruri kya sowa ka  (Shingon)  in Japanese おん あるりきゃ そわか

Great Compassion Mantra (Dharani) in Sanskrit

Namo Ratna Trayaya

Nama Arya Jyana

Sagara Vairochana

Byuhara Jaya Tathagataya

Arahate Samyaksam Buddhaya

Namah Sarwa Tathagate Bhyayh Arahatda Bhayh

Samyaksam Buddhe Bhayh

Namah Arya Awalokite

Shoraya Bohisatwaya

Mahasatwaya

Maha Karunikaya

Tatyata Om Dhara Dhara

Dhiri Dhiri

Dhuru Dhuru

Iti Wit Je Chalee Chalee

Purachale Purachale

Kusume Kusama Wa Re

Ili Mili Chiti

Jwala Mapanaya Soha

[For video chant version of the Great Compassion Mantra, see>>]

 

Kuan Yin Pusa, Goddess of Mercy, also known as Avalokiteshvara, Bodhisattva of Compassion.

 

Avalokiteshvara in the Lotus Sutra

In Chapter 25 of the Lotus Sutra — more formally called the Wonderful Dharma of the Lotus Flower Sutra — we learn that for countless Eons, the savior Bodhisattva will save any who simply call his (or her) name with faith. (The full Chapter 25 is below, in English translation.) The Lotus Sutra needs a minimal introduction for most Buddhists. It is the most influential and life-changing sutra — the sutra that introduced us to Bodhisattvas, Buddha Nature and many other Mahayana core understandings. As a “complete” sutra, most Mahayana Buddhists would seek out Lotus Sutra first. Other sutras, such as Prajnaparamita Sutra, are vital and wonderful, but very focused by topic —  while the Lotus Sutra informs all aspects of practice.

 

The very face of compassion, Metta personified in glorious Avalokiteshvara, the compassionate Buddha.

 

It is the Lotus Sutra that taught us the saving benefits of faith in Kanzeon, or Avalokiteshvara (Chenrezig, Guanyin, Kuan Yin, Kanon). Below, please read the full 25th chapter.

Translation Note: “Inexhaustible Intent” and other names are translated here to English, rather than left by the translater in their Sanskrit name forms. For example, “Avalokiteshvara” is translated here to English as  “Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds.” In one of the best known modern translations, by Gene Reeves, Avalokiteshvara is translated as “Bodhisattva Regarder of the Cries of the World.” Thich Nhat Hanh in “Opening the Heart of the Cosmos: Insights on the Lotus Sutra, translates more concisely as “Bodhisattva Sound Observer.” Clearly, it loses something in the translation.

 

Thousand-armed Chenrezig or Guanyin.

 

Other Sutras with Avalokiteshvara

Although the Lotus Sutra is the first and best-known sutra honoring the compassionate Buddha, there are many others, including, of course, the Heart Sutras where he teaches his realizations on Shunyata (Emptiness). Some texts which mention Avalokiteśvara include:

 

Six-Armed Avalokiteshvara Expounding the Dharma: Folio from a Manuscript of the Ashtasahasrika Prajnaparamita (Perfection of Wisdom) | India (West Bengal)

Chapter Twenty-five: The Universal Gate of Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara

At that time the bodhisattva Inexhaustible Intent immediately rose from his seat, bared his right shoulder, pressed his palms together and, facing the Buddha, spoke these words: “World-Honored One, this Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, Perceiver of the World’s Sounds  — why is he called Avalokiteshvara, Perceiver of the World’s Sounds?”

The Buddha said to Bodhisattva Inexhaustible Intent: “Good man, suppose there are immeasurable hundreds, thousands, ten thousands, millions of living beings who are undergoing various trials and suffering. If they hear of this Avalokiteshvara, Bodhisattva Perceiver of the Word’s Sounds and single-mindedly call his name, then at once he will perceive the sound of their voices and they will all gain deliverance from their trials.

Recite along in this video recitation of the 25th chapter with translation captions for recitation:


If someone, holding fast to the name of bodhisattva perceiver of the world’s sounds, should enter a great fire, the fire could not burn him. This would come about because of this bodhisattva’s authority and supernatural power. If one were washed away by a great flood and call upon his name, one would immediately find himself in a shallow place.

“Suppose there were a hundred, a thousand, ten thousand, a million living beings who, seeking for gold, silver, lapis lazuli, seashell, agate, coral, amber, pearls, and other treasures, set out on the great sea. and suppose a fierce wind should blow their ship off course and it drifted to the land of rakshasas demons. If among those people there is even just one who calls the name of Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s sounds, then all those people will be delivered from their troubles with the rakshasas. This is why he is called Perceiver of the World’s Sounds.

“If a person who faces imminent threat of attack should call the name of Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s sounds, then the swords and staves wielded by his attackers would instantly shatter into so many pieces and he would be delivered.

Though enough yakshas and rakshasas to fill all the thousand-million-fold world should try to come and torment a person, if they hear him calling the name of Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds, then these evil demons will not even be able to look at him with their evil eyes, much less do him harm.

“Suppose, in a place filled with all the evil-hearted bandits of the thousand-million-fold world, there is a merchant leader who is guiding a band of merchants carrying valuable treasures over a steep and dangerous road, and that one man shouts out these words: ‘Good men, do not be afraid! You must single-mindedly call on the name of Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds. This bodhisattva can grant fearlessness to living beings. If you call his name, you will be delivered from these evil-hearted bandits!’ When the band if merchants hear this, they all together raise their voices, saying, ‘Hail to the Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds!’ And because they call his name, they are at once able to gain deliverance. Inexhaustible Intent, the authority and supernatural power of the Bodhisattva and mahasattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds are as mighty as this!

“If there should be living beings beset by numerous lusts and cravings, let them think with constant reverence of Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds and then they can shed their desires. If they have great wrath and ire, let them think with constant reverence of Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds and then they can shed their ire. If they have great ignorance and stupidity, let them think with constant reverence of Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds and they can rid themselves of stupidity.

“Inexhaustible Intent, the Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds possesses great authority and supernatural powers, as I have described, and can confer many benefits. For this reason, living beings should constantly keep the thought of him in mind.

“If a woman wishes to give birth to a male child, she should offer obeisance and alms to Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds and then she will bear a son blessed with merit, virtue, and wisdom. And if she wishes to bear a daughter, she will bear one with al the marks of comeliness, one who in the past planted the roots of virtue and is loved and respected by many persons.

“Inexhaustible Intent, the Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds has power to do all this. If there are living beings who pay respect and obeisance to Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds, their good fortune will not be fleeting or vain. Therefore living beings should all accept and uphold the name of Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds.

“Inexhaustible Intent, suppose there is a person who accepts and upholds the names of as many bodhisattvas as there are sands in sixty-two million Ganges, and for as long as his present body lasts, he offers them alms in the form of food and drink, clothing, bedding and medicines. What is your opinion? Would this good man or good woman gain many benefits or would he not?”

Inexhaustible Intent replied, “They would be very many, World-Honored One.”

The Buddha said: “Suppose also that there is a person who accepts and upholds the name of Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds and even just once offers him obeisance and alms. The good fortune pained by these two persons would be exactly equal and without difference. For a hundred, a thousand, ten thousand, a million kalpas it would never be exhausted or run out. Inexhaustible Intent, if one accepts and upholds the name of Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds, he will gain the benefit of merit and virtue that is as immeasurable and boundless as this!”

Bodhisattva Inexhaustible Intent said to the Buddha, “World-Honored One, Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds– how does he come and go in this saha world?[2] How does he preach the Law for the sake of living beings? How does the power of expedient means apply in this case?”

The Buddha said to Bodhisattva Inexhaustible Intent: “Good man, if there are living beings in the land who need someone in the body of a Buddha in order to be saved, Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds immediately manifests himself in a Buddha body and preaches the Law for them. If they need someone in a pratyekabuddha’s body in order to be saved, immediately he manifests a pratyekabuddha’s body and preaches the Law to them. If the need a voice-hearer to be saved, immediately he becomes a voice-hearer and preaches the Law for them. If they need King Brahma to be saved, immediately he becomes King Brahma and preaches the Law for them. If they need the lord Shakra to be saved, immediately he becomes the lord Shakra and preaches the Law for them. If they need the heavenly being Freedom to be saved, immediately he becomes the heavenly being Freedom and preaches the Law for them. If they need a great general of heaven to be saved, immediately he becomes a great general of heaven and preaches the Law for them. If they need Vaishravana to be saved, immediately he becomes Vaishravana and preaches the Law for them. If they need a petty king to be saved, immediately he becomes a petty king and preaches the law for them.

If they need a rich man to be saved, immediately he becomes a rich man and preaches the Law for them. If they need a householder to be saved, immediately he becomes a householder and preaches the Law for them. If they need a chief minister to be saved, immediately he becomes a chief minister and preaches the Law for them. If they need a Brahman to be saved, immediately he becomes a Brahman and preaches the Law for them. If they need a monk, a nun, a layman believer, or a laywoman believer and preaches the Law for them. If they need the wife of a rich man, of a householder, a chief minister, or a Brahman to be saved, immediately he becomes those wives and preaches the Law for them. If they need a young boy or a young girl and preaches the Law for them. If they need a heavenly being, a dragon, a yaksha, a gandharva, an asura, a garuda, a kimnara, a mahoraga, a human or a nonhuman being to be saved, immediately he becomes all of these and preaches the Law for them. If they need a vajra-bearing god and preaches the Law for them.

“Inexhaustible Intent, this Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds has succeeded in acquiring benefits such as these and. Taking on a variety of different forms, goes about among the lands saving living beings. For this reason you and the others should single-mindedly offer alms to Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds can bestow fearlessness on those who are in fearful, pressing or difficult circumstances. That is why in this saha world everyone calls him Bestower of Fearlessness.”

“Bodhisattva Inexhaustible Intent said to the Buddha, “World-Honored One, now I must offer alms to Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds.”

Then he took from his neck a necklace adorned with numerous precious gems, worth a hundred or a thousand taels of gold, and presented it to [the bodhisattva], saying, “Sir, please accept this necklace of precious gems as a gift in the Dharma.”

At that time Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds was unwilling to accept the gift.

Inexhaustible Intent spoke once more to Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds, saying, “Sir, out of compassion for us, please accept this necklace.”

Then the Buddha said to Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds, “Out of compassion for this Bodhisattva Inexhaustible Intent and for the four kinds of believers, the heavenly kings, dragons, yakshas, gandharvas, asuras, garudas, kimnaras, mahoragas, human and nonhuman beings, you should accept this necklace.”

Thereupon Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds, having compassion for the four kinds of believers and the heavenly beings, dragons, human and nonhuman beings and the others, accepted the necklace and, dividing it into two parts, presented one part to Shakyamuni Buddha and presented the other to the tower of the Buddha Many Treasures.

[The Buddha said,] “Inexhaustible Intent, these are the kinds of freely exercised supernatural powers that Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds displays in his comings and goings in the saha world.”

At that time Bodhisattva Inexhaustible Intent posed this question in verse form:

World-Honored One replete with wonderful features,
I now ask you once again
for what reason that Buddha’s son
is named Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds?
The honored One endowed with wonderful features
replied to Inexhaustible Intent in verse:
Listen to the actions of the Perceiver of Sounds,
how aptly he responds in various quarters.
His vast oath is deep as the ocean;
kalpas pass but it remains unfathomable.
He has attended many thousands and millions of Buddhas,
setting forth his great pure vow.
I will describe him in outline for you-
listen to his name, observe his body,
bear him in mind, not passing the time vainly,
for he can wipe out the pains of existence.
Suppose someone should conceive a wish to harm you,
should push you into a great pit of fire.
Think on the power of that Perceiver of Sounds
and the pit of fire will change into a pond!
If you should be cast adrift on the vast ocean,
menaced by dragons, fish and various demons,
think on the power of that Perceiver of Sounds
and the billows and waves cannot drown you!
Suppose you are on the peak of Mount Sumeru
and someone pushes you off.
Think on the power of that Perceiver of Sounds
and you will hang in midair like the sun!
Suppose you are pursued by evil men
who wish to throw you down from a diamond mountain.
Think on the power of that Perceiver of Sounds
and they cannot harm a hair of you!
Suppose you are surrounded by evil-hearted bandits,
each brandishing a knife to wound you.
Think on the power of that Perceiver of Sounds
and at once all will be swayed by compassion!
Suppose you encounter trouble with the king’s law,
face punishment, about to forfeit your life.
Think on the power of that Perceiver of Sounds
and the executioner’s sword will be broken to bits!
Suppose you are imprisoned in cangue and lock,
hands and feet bound by fetters and chains.
Think on the power of that Perceiver of Sounds
and they will fall off, leaving you free!
Suppose with curses and various poisonous herbs
someone should try to injure you.
Think on the power of that Perceiver of Sounds
and the injury will rebound upon the originator.
Suppose you encounter evil rakshasas,
poison dragons and various demons.
Think on the power of that Perceiver of Sounds
and then none of them will dare to harm you.
If evil beasts should encircle you,
their sharp fangs and claws inspiring terror,
think on the power of that Perceiver of sounds
and they will scamper away in boundless retreat.
If lizards, snakes, vipers, scorpions
threaten you with poison breath that sears like flame,
think on the power of that Perceiver of Sounds
and, hearing your voice, they will flee of themselves.
If clouds should bring thunder, and lightning strike,
if hail pelts or drenching rain comes down,
think on the power of that Perceiver of Sounds
and at that moment they will vanish away.
If living beings encounter weariness or peril,
immeasurable suffering pressing them down,
the power of the Perceiver of Sounds’ wonderful wisdom
can save them from the sufferings of the world.
He is endowed with transcendental powers
and widely practices the expedient means of wisdom.
Throughout the lands in the ten directions
there is no region where he does not manifest himself.
In many different kinds of evil circumstances,
in the realms of hell, hungry spirits or beasts,
the sufferings of birth, old age, sickness and death–
all these he bit by bit wipes out.
He of the true gaze, the pure gaze,
the gaze of great and encompassing wisdom,
the gaze of pity, the gaze of compassion–
constantly we implore him, constantly look up in reverence.
His pure light, free of blemish,
is a sun of wisdom dispelling all darknesses.
He can quell the wind and fire of misfortune
and everywhere bring light to the world.
The precepts from his compassionate body shake us
like thunder,
the wonder of his pitying mind is like a great cloud.
He sends down the sweet dew, the Dharma rain,
to quench the flames of earthly desires.
When law suits bring you before the officials,
when terrified in the midst of an army,
think on the power of that Perceiver of Sounds
and hatred in all its forms will be dispelled.
Wonderful sound, Perceiver of the World’s Sounds,
Brahma’s sound, the sea tide sound–
they surpass those sounds of the world;
therefore you should constantly think on them
from thought to thought never entertaining doubt!
Perceiver of the World’s Sounds, pure sage–
to those in suffering, in danger of death,
he can offer aid and support.
Endowed with all benefits,
he views living beings with compassionate eyes.
The sea of his accumulated blessings is immeasurable;
therefore you should bow your head to him!

At that time the Bodhisattva Earth Holder immediately rose from his seat, advanced, and said to the Buddha, “World-Honored One, if there are living beings who hear this chapter on Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds, on the freedom of his actions, his manifestation of a universal gateway, and his transcendental powers, it should be known that the benefits these persons gain are not few!”

When the Buddha preached this chapter on the Universal Gateway, a multitude of eighty-four thousand persons in the assembly all conceived a determination to attain the unparalleled state of anuttara-samyak-sambodhi.

NOTES

[1] “Avalokiteshvara in Tibet”, Tricycle

[2] Saha translates more or less as “mundane” world.

[3] Fu, James S. (1977). Mythic and Comic Aspects of the Quest: Hsi-yu Chi as Seen Through Don Quixote and Huckleberry Finn. Singapore University Press. ISBN 9780821404713. P. 26

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Lee Kane

Author | Buddha Weekly

Lee Kane is the editor of Buddha Weekly, since 2007. His main focuses as a writer are mindfulness techniques, meditation, Dharma and Sutra commentaries, Buddhist practices, international perspectives and traditions, Vajrayana, Mahayana, Zen. He also covers various events.
Lee also contributes as a writer to various other online magazines and blogs.

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